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INDERAL (PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE) TABLETS: SPECIAL POPULATIONS

Geriatric

In a study of 12 elderly (62-79 years old) and 12 young (25-33 years old) healthy subjects, the clearance of S(-)-enantiomer of propranolol was decreased in the elderly. Additionally, the half-life of both the R(+)- and S(-)-propranolol were prolonged in the elderly compared with the young (11 hours vs. 5 hours).

Clearance of propranolol is reduced with aging due to decline in oxidation capacity (ring oxidation and side-chain oxidation). Conjugation capacity remains unchanged. In a study of 32 patients age 30 to 84 years given a single 20-mg dose of propranolol, an inverse correlation was found between age and the partial metabolic clearances to 4-hydroxypropranolol (40HP-ring oxidation) and to naphthoxylactic acid (NLA-side chain oxidation). No correlation was found between age and the partial metabolic clearance to propranolol glucuronide (PPLG-conjugation).

Gender

In a study of 9 healthy women and 12 healthy men, neither the administration of testosterone nor the regular course of the menstrual cycle affected the plasma binding of the Inderal (Propranolol Hydrochloride) enantiomers. In contrast, there was a significant, although non-enantioselective diminution of the binding of propranolol after treatment with ethinyl estradiol. These findings are inconsistent with another study, in which administration of testosterone cypionate confirmed the stimulatory role of this hormone on propranolol metabolism and concluded that the clearance of propranolol in men is dependent on circulating concentrations of testosterone. In women, none of the metabolic clearances for propranolol showed any significant association with either estradiol or testosterone.

Race

A study conducted in 12 Caucasian and 13 African-American male subjects taking Inderal (Propranolol) tablets, showed that at steady state, the clearance of R(+)- and S(-)-propranolol were about 76% and 53% higher in African-Americans than in Caucasians, respectively.

Chinese subjects had a greater proportion (18% to 45% higher) of unbound propranolol in plasma compared to Caucasians, which was associated with a lower plasma concentration of alpha1 acid glycoprotein.

Renal Insufficiency

In a study conducted in 5 patients with chronic renal failure, 6 patients on regular dialysis, and 5 healthy subjects, who received a single oral dose of 40 mg of propranolol, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of propranolol in the chronic renal failure group were 2 to 3-fold higher (16141 ng/mL) than those observed in the dialysis patients (479 ng/mL) and in the healthy subjects (261 ng/mL). Propranolol plasma clearance was also reduced in the patients with chronic renal failure.

Studies have reported a delayed absorption rate and a reduced half-life of propranolol in patients with renal failure of varying severity. Despite this shorter plasma half-life, propranolol peak plasma levels were 3-4 times higher and total plasma levels of metabolites were up to 3 times higher in these patients than in subjects with normal renal function.

Chronic renal failure has been associated with a decrease in drug metabolism via downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity resulting in a lower "first-pass" clearance.

Inderal (Propranolol HCl) is not significantly dialyzable.

Hepatic Insufficiency

Propranolol Hydrochloride (Inderal) is extensively metabolized by the liver. In a study conducted in 7 patients with cirrhosis and 9 healthy subjects receiving 80-mg oral propranolol every 8 hours for 7 doses, the steady-state unbound propranolol concentration in patients with cirrhosis was increased 3-fold in comparison to controls. In cirrhosis, the half-life increased to 11 hours compared to 4 hours.

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